As we all know, the atom is the building block. The atom consists of a nucleus consisting of protons and neutrons and electrons revolving around the nucleus.

If the number of neutrons in the atomic nucleus of any substance is greater than the number of protons, instability occurs in the nucleus and excess neutrons are broken down. During this fragmentation, alpha, beta, gamma, and non-visible rays emerge. These rays are called “radiation.”

Unfortunately, many devices nowadays emit radiation. These substances, which emit radiation are called radioactive substances. We are unaware but our organs and tissues are constantly interacting with radiation. This interaction is sometimes visible, sometimes affecting our body without knowing it at all.
İlgili resim
Radiation is the energy that is emitted by energy packages called waves, particles or photons and is a phenomenon that we always live together with. Radioisotopes that are capable of communicating with radio and television, x-rays used in the industry and sun rays are the kinds of radiation that we are accustomed to in our daily lives.

Radiation has been around since the early ages, but the discovery of human radiation has been made in 1896 when the French physicist Henri Becquerel realized that uranium salt had been irradiated. With the development of the technology and the industry, the uranium element has begun to be used and the effects of radiation are increasing.
Types of Radiation:
-Ionizing Radiation
-Electromagnetic radiation
-Gamma (Y) Rays
-X-rays
-Particle Radiation
-Alpha (α) Rays
-Beta (β) Rays

Alpha and beta rays are radioactive rays originating from atomic nuclei. Both rays have a certain mass. Because of their mass and their electrical charges, alpha and beta rays penetrate less than the X and gamma rays. However, the ionizing effect of these rays is greater. Neutron and proton are nuclear particles whose masses are up to one-fourth of the alpha rays. Neutrons and protons that break from the nucleus during various nuclear reactions are the most dangerous ones for human health. In particular, the neutron has a very large penetration ability because it has no electric charge. The effect of radioactive rays on the human body is related to the movements of these rays.

Non-Ionizing Radiation
1.Optic Radiation
Ultraviolet rays
2. EMR Qualified Radiation

Radiation Hazards:

Ionizing radiation carries enough energy to break down DNA, the genetic material of the cell, and cells are killed by the breakdown of DNA. As a result, naturally, the tissues are damaged and can cause cancer.

Radioactive substances randomly emitted into the environment disrupt the environment and ecological balance by adversely affecting human, animal and plant health. In addition, radiation can cause genetic alterations or permanent changes in the body. The effects of radiation vary according to sex, age, and organ, but in children and adolescents, it often affects the eye, causing visual disturbances and cataracts.

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Radiation effects appear over time. Due to the nuclear weapons tests carried out in the past, dust clouds loaded with radioactive materials have slowly settled down to the earth in radioactive rains, depositing on the stratosphere and higher layers of the atmosphere causing pollution, especially surface waters.

Radiation damage to the environment is spreading unlimitedly and affects kilometers away. The simplest example is that the Chernobyl accident in the UK has affected not only the Ukrainian accident but also the Black Sea region as well as many other regions.


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