In the computer world, discussions, events and brainstorms have always been around on a subject for years: Is quantum computing possible or not? If possible, how will it work, what will it be used for?

This year marks the 50th anniversary of the launch of the Intel 4004, the first transistor-based processor. Our computers, which came up to date with Moore’s law and Dennard’s idea of ​​scaling, are no longer able to develop as fast as in past years. Although even our mobile phones have much more powerful processors compared to the supercomputers of the past, traditional processors are no longer sufficient for the computer world. The solution is quantum computers.

In the past decades, until it reached its current level of sophistication, the most brilliant engineers did some calculations. They developed transistors, delved into electrons and engaged in deep scientific and physical research. Finally, algorithms, compilers, microprocessors developed an ecosystem of 0’s and 1’s for logic gates and their foundations to work with.

In today’s information systems everything is based on the logic principle of 0s and 1s. is based on. The movie you watch, the text you write, the game you play, and more. What about the computer world has come to the last level, is there not more than the current technologies?

Undoubtedly there is. IBM, Google, Intel, Microsoft and many other technology giants are trying to develop special quantum information processors by investing billions of dollars in the laboratories they have established just for this job. Devledollarser is constantly making investments to catch up with the times, because this is the future of computers.

The number of quantum bidollarserine, namely cubidollarserine, in these machines, which are further developed with each new prototype, is increasing. If successful, it seems like a matter of time before we have quantum computers that do incredible things that today’s systems cannot do for years. So how close are we to that?

Unfortunately, quantum computing still has a long way to go. The quantum machines that have been developed so far are equivalent to the pre-transistor vacuum tube time of today’s computers.

According to the researchers, these processors developed using quantum physics NISQ (Noisy Intermediate-Scale Quantum)

In a period called , they will have a computational advantage over today’s computers. It is known to those who like to read about quantum computers that this structure was designed quite prone to errors during the development process.

A 50-cubidollarsic quantum computer developed by IBM.

Contrary to popular belief, quantum computers will not completely replace today’s systems. It will be used as an auxiliary component, more like an additional accelerator. For example, display cards can easily draw images that are difficult to process compared to normal CPUs. The quantum accelerator processors that are planned to be developed for this purpose are called QPU, that is, “Quantum Processing Unit”. QPU units are also controlled by normal CPUs as if they were separate hardware. So processors and quantum processors will work together.

The quantum working structure, which is planned to be used in computers, will classically serve for pre- or post-processing of the data, that’s all. It does not seem possible to use quantum processors in a completely pure form, at least for now.

What is wanted to be done in this process is to use the nimedollar series of quantum physics to make very fast calculations instead of using the known properties of electrons. Since even the supercomputers used in today’s scientific research have become inadequate at some point, we can say that if quantum computers are successful, many other scientific researches and inventions will be opened.

In fact, what quantum is and whether it is possible was debated by scientists not only today, but also centuries ago in the past. Niels Bohr, Einstein and many other physicists were thinking about it and giving explanations to each other in the debates. Let’s go back a bit and start to examine the theories that have been put forward about the diffusion of quantum and its difficulties.

Quantum computers are machines that use the features of quantum physics to store data and make calculations. This can be extremely advantageous for certain tasks where they can outperform even our best supercomputers.

Classic computers, which include smartphones and laptops, encode information as binary “bidollarser”, which can be 0’s or 1’s. In a quantum computer, on the other hand, the basic unit of memory is a quantum bit or qubit.

Cubidollarser is made using physical systems such as the spin of an electron or the direction of a photon. These systems can be in many different configurations at the same time; this is a property known as quantum superposition. Cubidollarser can also be inextricably linked using a phenomenon called quantum entanglement. As a result, a set of qubits can represent different things at the same time.

For example, eight bits are enough for a classical computer to represent any number between 0 and 255. But eight qubits are enough for a quantum computer to simultaneously represent every number between 0 and 255. A few hundred entangled qubits would be enough to represent more numbers than there are atoms in the universe.

This is where quantum computers excel over classical ones. In situations where there are many possible combinations, quantum computers can evaluate them simultaneously. Examples include prime factors of a very large number or trying to find the best path between two places.

However, there may be many cases where classical computers will still outperform quantum computers. So the computers of the future will be a combination of these two types.

For now, quantum computers are pretty sensitive: heat, electromagnetic fields, and collisions with air molecules can cause a qubit to lose its quantum properties. This process, known as quantum decoherence, causes the system to crash, and the more particles there are, the faster it happens.

In Brussels, Belgium, in 1927, a very different atmosphere prevailed in the city. Solvay Conference

At a meeting called , the best physicists of that period came together and they all started to discuss a different subject if they were hararedollar. Of the 27 physicists who attended this conference, 17 were Nobel prize winners.

In general, the conference revolved around scientific debates about ideas put forward by two great people: Niels Bohr‘s quantum theory and Albert Einstein

What said to refute it.

During this conference, which lasted for about a week, Einstein was very determined, he was planning to put Bohr in trouble with his research on the flaws of the quantum. Bohr and other scientists who supported his idea would try to refute Einstein’s words, taking into account every conceivable difficulty. Physicists were calculating every possibility and working on it in order to win this great debate. Bohr once devised an attempt to disprove Einstein. The Theory of Relativity even used it as a counter argument.

As a result of the conference Bohr and the physicists who supported it Einstein and was deemed to have won the debate.

Solvay Conference and participating scientists.

Einstein still thought that there were some mistakes in quantum theory, and he was trying hard to disprove it. When calendars show the year 1933 Scientist who settled in Princeton in order to find potential flaws of quantum Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen

Started working with . As a result of their long-term work together, they revealed an obscurity in quantum physics. EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen) paradox

In this theory, called , an impossible connection between particles was discovered. They found that several particles can exhibit behaviors that match in the real world.

To illustrate the EPR paradox, consider two particles, each one meter apart, under separate containers. Mathematically, finding and looking at the particle under one of these containers would reveal that the particle under the other container had matching structures. Einstein calls it himself “spooky action at distance” would say. The EPR paradox was one of Einstein’s most researched works, and many physicists had worked to resolve this paradox and save it from obscurity. Was Einstein’s claim true or Bohr’s theory?

Despite this huge distortion in quantum mechanics, we see that the theory is successful today. The discovery of lasers in 1940 and the development of the transistors on the parallel axis that underlie today’s processors were carried out assuming the quantum theory was “correct” in the head. Until the 1960s, there was no real answer to this confusion.

Image about the EPR Paradox. – Image Source: Wikipedia

Have you ever thought about what would happen if we combined Shor algorithm and Grover in order to evaluate the superiority of quantum computing even more effectively? Let’s say we want to crack an N bidollarsic password (where n stands for any number). Classic computers must try all possible combinations of the password in order to crack it. In other words, the brute force attack that everyone knows is made. if N-cubidollarsik If we use a quantum system, we can theoretically discover all combinations at the same time with our computer. This happens with the help of superposition.

Then we can use the Grover algorithm to eliminate all these combinations we find and distinguish the correct one. Thus, there is a very high probability of finding which bit string will crack the password.

Of course, it should not be forgotten that the only purpose of quantum computers corrupting cryptographic structures, does not crack passwords. With the help of quantum computers, we can also create much stronger encryption infrastructures than today. In a quantum system, we can use the entanglement feature to understand whether we are being watched by others or not. Because entangled quantum particles are structures that should logically exhibit the same behavior, capture of data by others where the transfer was made to change the properties of the particles causes. Although such technologies are applied in different ways today to improve infrastructure security, they are not quantum-like. Imagine how secure the quantum-based internet could be.

But, it will be a little sad, but we can use quantum in this way and benefit from various algorithms. hundreds of stable qubits, which means we have to work for decades more. Scientists and physicists are more interested in non-long-term NISQ structures that could demonstrate quantum supremacy in this complex system. VQE (Variational Quantum Eigensolvers) and QAOA (Quantum Approximate Optimization Algorithm)

Structures such as are being developed in order to exploit the potential of quantum computing in the near future.

So what’s the use of quantum for now? In fact, we can discover more advanced algorithms that we have already used by researching quantum algorithms while we are still in the classical computer age. Thus, until quantum processors are designed, scientific successes can be achieved in different fields by transferring secondary technology.


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Michael Lewis


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