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Simply put, it’s everywhere from your car to your smartphone to your watch. GPS or Global Locator System; It is a global navigation satellite system that enables you to get from point A to point B by providing location, speed and time synchronization.

If you say, “I want more detailed information about what GPS is, how it works, its past and future developments,” we invite you to read our article.

What is GPS and how does it work?

Global Positioning System or more commonly known as GPS; satellites, a receiver and algorithms

For air, sea and land travel via location, speed and time is actually a navigation system that synchronizes its data.

The satellite system is in six Earth-centered orbital planes, each with four satellites. orbiting 13,000 miles (20,000 km) above Earth and moving at 8,700 mph (14,000 km/h) 24 consists of a constellation of satellites. We only need three satellites to determine a position on the Earth’s surface; however, a fourth satellite is often used to verify information from the other three. The fourth satellite also transports us to the third dimension, allowing us to calculate the altitude of a device. In this way, we get a clearer position.

GPS history in brief

When you think about it, people actually already Sun, Moon, stars and then sextant

They have practiced navigation for thousands of years using . GPS, on the other hand, is a 20th century development made possible by space age technology.

The possibility of geolocation capabilities of GPS, which has been used globally throughout history, Russia’s Sputnik I in 1957 and shortly thereafter for submarine navigation. US Defense started to be used by In 1983, the US made GPS available to everyone, although it still retains control of the available data. The advancement of GPS was finally paved the way in 2000 when companies and the general public gained full access to GPS use.

Alright, Behind GPS who was the developer force? Actually, in this case, I think it would be more correct to say powers rather than developer power.

Names behind GPS

Roger L. Easton

a cold war scientist Roger L. Easton, was the brain behind the development of GPS. Easton; using passive range, circular orbits, and a main saadollarse synchronized space-borne high-precision saadollarser

Before developing the time-based navigation concept TIMATION , he was working on tracking satellites, such as the Sputnik of the Soviet Union.

Easton became president in 2004. George W. Bush. The honor is dedicated to Easton’s “extensive pioneering achievements in spacecraft tracking, navigation and timing technology that led to the development of the NAVSTAR-Global Positioning System.”

Ivan Getting

In honor of the Mucidollarser Hall of Fame Ivan Getting, person behind “the concept of using an advanced satellite system to calculate highly accurate positioning data for rapidly moving vehicles, from cars to missiles”. Getting proposed a three-dimensional, arrival-time-difference locating system for navigation, and this proposal was was what is now essentially GPS. The Navy had already developed a very good space navigation system when this proposal was submitted to the Defense Department; however, the conclusion of the Director of Defense Research and Engineering (DDRE) is that it is a single system and GPS was to be based on the Air Force Series/Aviation concept developed by Air Force with the collaboration of all three services.

Getting also in 2003,” GPS’s work on design, operational value, planning, negotiation and reaching agreements with all stakeholders of the system” was awarded the Charles Stark Draper Engineering Award by the American National Academy of Engineering.

Brad Parkinson

Parkinson, from 1972 to 1978 NAVSTAR GPSHe was at the forefront of the Joint Program Office. According to the Mucidollarser Hall of Fame, “As the first director of the program, throughout the design, engineering development and implementation of the system Chief architect of GPS”, is also the owner of the title “Father of GPS”.

Parkinson, one of the Air Force colonels of the period, A Space and Missile Systems Organization named 621B, and when the Defense Department decided it wanted a joint program developed with the cooperation of all military service, Parkinson was appointed head of the project to bring such a program together.

Parkinson is Easton’s bestseller of this new program. From TIMATION, from the signal structure of 621B and developed at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory TRANSIT, another Navy navigation system says it takes from its orbital prediction method. With all of these coming together, the NAVSTAR-Global Positioning System was born.

Glady West

Dr. west was somewhat more difficult than others to be considered one of the key figures behind the invention of GPS; but considering the fact that she was a black woman from the 1950s, it’s not hard to understand why. In 1956 West began work at the United States Dollarsser Naval Weapons Laboratory, which was at the forefront of the post-Cold War space race until 2004, when the Air Force took over the reins of space. Marine Space Observation Center. A trained mathematician, West would scramble numbers and process data from the satellites to help pinpoint the exact positions of the satellites.

In December 2018, Dr. West is finally awarded one of the Air Force Series Space Command’s Highest Honors. Air Forces Series Space and Missile Pioneers Hall of Fame

What are the three elements that make up GPS?

GPS, segment

It consists of three different components called that work together to provide location information. These components are:

  • Space (Satellites): Satellites surrounding the Earth transmit signals to users based on geographic location and time of day.

  • Ground control: command post, houston, main command, control tower. Control Segment; Earth-based monitoring stations consist of main control stations and ground antenna. The series of control activities includes the tracking and operation of satellites in space and the monitoring of broadcasts. North and South America, Africa, Europe, Asia and Australia

    There are monitoring stations on almost every continent of the world, including .

  • User equipment:Saadollarser all GPS transceivers, including items such as smartphones and telematics devices.

How does GPS technology work?

GPS; used to calculate position, speed and altitude, trilateration

It works on the principle that a technique called collects signals from satellites to extract location information. Trilateration; often used to measure angles rather than distances triangulation. Signals are sent from Earth-orbiting satellites to be detected and interpreted by a GPS device on or near the Earth’s surface. In order for a GPS device to calculate the location most precisely, at least four is able to detect these signals coming from the satellite.

in the network each satellite orbits the earth twice a day and each satellite sends a unique signal, orbital parameters and time. A GPS device can detect signals from six or more satellites no matter when they happen.

A single satellite is received by a GPS device and used to calculate the distance from the GPS device to the satellite. microwave signal emits. Since a GPS device only gives information about its distance to a satellite, a single satellite cannot provide very detailed location information; that is, a single satellite is insufficient to determine a precise position. Satellites do not provide information about angles, so a GPS device’s location can be anywhere on Earth.

When the first satellite sends a signal, it is measured from the GPS device to the satellite. forms a circle with radius. With the help of the second satellite, a second circle is formed and the location narrows to one of the two points where the circles intersect. With the addition of the third satellite, the position of the device can finally be determined since the device is at the intersection of the three circles.

After all, we live in a three-dimensional world, which means that every satellite means that it produces a sphere, not a circle. With the intersection of the three spheres two intersection points occurs so that the most probable point can be determined. To explain a little more; As the device moves, hence the radius, that is, to the satellite. the distance also changes. When this radius changes, new spheres are produced, giving us a new position. By combining this data with the time from the satellite we can use the speed to calculate the distance to our destination and the ETA i.e. estimated time of arrival.

What are the benefits of GPS?

For businesses and organizations from many different industries, GPS is an indispensable tool. Cartographers, scientists, pilodollarsars, boat captains, first responders, mine and agricultural workers, all these are ankedollarser and are just a few of the people who daily use the convenience of GPS, which works at all times and in almost all weather conditions for things like making maps, making precise time measurements, tracking location or location, and navigation.

There are five main uses of GPS. These are;

  • Location: Specifying a location.

  • Navigation: Transportation from one location to another.

  • Follow: Tracking/following an object or personal movement.

  • Mapping: Creating world maps.

  • Timing: Making it possible to take precise time measurements.

Some of the situations that require the use of GPS are:

Emergency Response:

During an emergency or natural disaster, first responders use GPS to map, track/predict weather, and track emergency personnel. In the EU and Russia, the Ecall regulation provides a GPS alternative to send data to emergency services in the event of a vehicle accident. GLONASS technology and reduces response time using telematics.

Entertainment:

GPS can be incorporated into games and activities such as Pokemon Go and Geocaching.

Health & Fitness:

Smart saadollarser and wearable technology can track fitness activities like distance running and compare it to a similar demographic.

Construction, mining and land transport:

From locating equipment to measuring and improving asset allocation, GPS enables companies to increase the return on their assets.

Transportation:

Logistics company also makes use of telematics systems to increase driver productivity and safety. Truck tracking devices are also used to support route optimization, fuel efficiency, driver safety and compliance.

Agriculture, autonomous vehicles, sales and service, military, mobile communications, security and fisheries are some of the sectors that benefit from the service offered by GPS.

So how accurate is GPS?

accuracy of the GPS device; The number of satellites available depends on the ionosphere, urban environment and many other variables. Some of the factors that will affect GPS accuracy are as follows:

Physical disabilities

GPS; Arrival time measurements can be distorted by mountains, buildings, trees, and the like.

Atmospheric effects:

Ionospheric delays, heavy storm cover, and solar storms can all affect GPS devices, causing their accuracy to falter.

Ephemerides

An orbital model on a satellite may be inaccurate or outdated, although this is increasingly rare today.

Numerical miscalculations

This can be a factor where device hardware is not designed to specifications.

Artificial parasite

We can also call them GPS jamming devices or scams.

Accuracy is higher in open areas without adjacent tall buildings that could block signals. This effect urban canyon

Also known as . When a device is surrounded by large buildings, such as in Manhattan or downtown Toronto, the satellite signal is first blocked and then reflected by a building and read by the device. This leads to wrong perception of the satellite distance.

Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS)

GPS, Global Navigation Satellite System, which means that GPS is a satellite navigation system with global coverage. USA made NAVSTAR and Russian made GLONASS

There are two leading global navigation satellite systems, namely . of the USA 32

NAVSTAR GPS, consisting of satellites, is the best known and most used satellite system. Russia’s GLONASS, three of which are in the backup or testing phase. 24 consists of operational satellites.

Other countries are competing with each other to catch up with the USA and Russia in GPS technology. EU; Galileo

With its system named , China is BeiDou Navigation Satellite System with 35 satellites who participated in the race. In addition, Japan and India also have their own regional systems. Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS) and India Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) has taken a hand in GPS technology.

GPS and GNSS devices

Although GPS is a subset of GNSS, receivers are divided into GPS and GNSS. While a GPS receiver can only detect information from satellites in the GPS satellite network, the typical GNSS device can simultaneously acquire data from both GPS and GLONASS (or more of these two systems).

There are 60 satellites that can be displayed on a GNSS receiver. While only three satellites are needed to locate a device, more satellites means a more precise location. The chart below shows an example of a GPS receiver’s signal strength (column height) along with the number of available satellites shown in green. In this case, there are 12 satellites.

A GNSS device can see more satellites, which helps increase the accuracy of the device. The chart below has 17 available satellites, with the green bars representing GPS and the blue bars representing GLONASS.

However, GNSS has some disadvantages:

  • GNSS chips cost more than GPS devices.
  • GNSS (1559-1610 MHz) uses a larger bandwidth than GPS (1559-1591 MHz). This means that standard GPS radio frequency components such as antennas, filters and amplifiers cannot be used for GNSS receivers, resulting in a greater cost impact.
  • GNSS has slightly higher power consumption than GPS receivers as it connects to more satellites and performs calculations to determine location.

What awaits GPS in the future?

Countries, accuracy and reliability continues to strive to improve and improve GPS systems in order to increase its share.

Here are some of the planned innovations for GPS technology:

  • GNSS receivers are smaller, more efficient and more accurate; GNSS technology is expected to penetrate even the most cost-sensitive GPS applications.
  • Scientists and rescue teams are finding new ways to use GPS technology for natural disaster prevention and analysis in case of earthquakes, volcanic landslides, sinkholes or avalanches. For the COVID-19 pandemic, researchers are leveraging mobile phone location data to aid contact tracing to slow the spread of the virus.
  • With the launch of the new GPS III satellites, the L1C civilian signal will be broadcast for interoperability with other satellite systems, shrinking GPS accuracy to 1 to 3 meters by 2023, and improving navigation capabilities and longer life components.
  • New generation GPS satellites; It will include better signal protection, reduced susceptibility to signal jamming, and greater maneuverability to cover dead zones.
  • The National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Deep Space Atomic Clock is set to use a powerful onboard GPS satellite that helps provide better consistency in time for future astronodollarsars embarking on deep space journeys.

With all this, we can safely say that the future of GPS will probably be much more accurate and effective for both personal and business use.


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Michael Lewis

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