Even if you are not related to philosophy, art and science, at least in high school you have come across such concepts. Of course, it must be admitted that among these concepts is the most confusing philosophy. You can get confused even when you take a superficial look at the field of philosophy, which is mind-blowing when you dig deep. because actually philosophy,is a form of art created by those who are confused.
It is possible to call philosophy art, because many people philosophy uses the definition of the art of thought. In fact, every person who thinks and wonders can philosophize because the basis of this field is to ask questions and search for meaning in existing things. So much so that this search for meaning eventually revealed different movements and science. What is philosophy, which subjects are included in philosophy,Let’s take a closer look at what is the difference between science and philosophy.
What is philosophy?
The word philosophy, which is of Greek origin, means the love of wisdom, the search for wisdom. Basically these definitions are correct because philosophy mostly refers to studies on abstract concepts. According to some, philosophy, which is also defined as the art of thought, is not a science, but there are scientific studies and philosophy of science in the field of philosophy.
The person who produces in the field of philosophy is called a philosopher, and the person who works on philosophy is called a philosopher. The questions that philosophy has asked throughout history have generally focused on abstract concepts. because while science offers the opportunity to work on concrete areasit is up to philosophy to deal with abstract concepts.
What is the purpose of philosophy?
Although philosophy aims to find the truth in its most basic sense, the questions asked about the curious subjects are systematic questions based on previously learned knowledge and concepts. But even whether questions should be systematic is actually a matter of philosophy.
Asked in Philosophy questions are within the framework of logic and the questions generally questioned are about beliefs, surprising things, and people’s decision methods. In other words, philosophy asks questions about the existing but cannot be explained with the information we know so far, and wants these subjects to be explained with new information to be added on the known information.
The fact that ordinary thought and philosophical inquiry are completely within the framework of logic, is knowledge-based and aims to open the way for reasoning rather than a clear answer. Instead of asking a direct question about the curious subject, the riddle-like reasonings make more people question about the subject.
To summarize in general, the aim of philosophy is; issues that cannot be explained with the information we know so far is to make people reason on the subject by asking riddle-style questions in a logical and conceptual framework. The emergence of different fields such as science, together with the philosophical varieties and movements, is a result of these reasonings.
Philosophy types and questions asked:
The philosophy, which emerged thousands of years ago, has determined certain titles over time and As the number of philosophers working on certain fields increases a series of philosophical movements and varieties emerged. Although it is divided into many different movements and genres within itself, the series of philosophy types in general is as follows;
- philosophy of science
- Epistemology / Philosophy of knowledge
- Metaphysics / Philosophy beyond physics
- Ontology / Philosophy of Being
- Political philosophy
- Aesthetics / Beauty philosophy
- Ethics / Moral philosophy
- philosophy of mind
- Legal philosophy
- Educational philosophy
Basically, it is possible to list and evaluate philosophy types under these main headings. Of course, some titles used here may have different equivalents in daily life. However the biggest reason for their determination as a type of philosophy, is to ask field-specific questions. In general, the questions asked in different types of philosophy are as follows;
- Is there a god?
- What is truth?
- What is reality?
- What is a person?
- Is the world made of matter?
- Do people have minds?
- Do humans have free will?
- Is there causality?
- What is information?
- Do we know anything?
- How do we know that we know?
- Are we right to claim that we know?
- What is good?
- What is a good person?
- What’s right?
- What is morality?
- How should we treat others?
- How to build reasoning?
- What is beautiful?
- What is art?
The questions we have listed here are basically questions that have been asked by philosophers for thousands of years and are topics of curiosity, most of which we still cannot find an answer to even today.Some of these questions are subjects to be explored only with philosophy. However, some questions are subjects that need to be examined and researched in different fields, especially in science.
Relationship between philosophy and other fields:
science and philosophy are two fields produced by the human mind and they are often inseparable from each other. Both fields try to find answers by working on the questions that are curious. However, while science is a field based on experimentation and observation, philosophy approaches events from a conceptual and logical point of view.
Although philosophy and it seem like two separate fields, they are actually intertwined. ‘Cause they’re both somehow tries to explain the universe we live in.
While makes statements that are closed to criticism and doubt with dogmatic sources, philosophy suspects everything and uses the method of criticism.
Philosophy and art are the two fields that have the most in common. Both criticize produced with creative intelligence and aims to explain both man and the universe. However, while art aims the beauty with emotional productions by seeking beauty, philosophy keeps the mind in the foreground by seeking the truth. Despite everything, they have always had a direct relationship with each other throughout history.
Some important philosophers and philosophers in history:
- Jacques Derrida (1930-2004)
- Michel Foucault (1926-1984)
- Jean-François Lyotard (1924-1998)
- Roland Barthes (1915-1980)
- Albert Camus (1913-1960)
- Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980)
- Martin Heidegger (1889-1976)
- Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951)
- Bertrand Russell (1872-1970)
- Edmund Husserl (1859-1938)
- Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900)
- Karl Marx (1818-1883)
- Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862)
- Mikhail Bakunin (1814-1876)
- Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855)
- John Stuart Mill (1806-1873)
- Hegel (1770-1831)
- Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)
- Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)
- David Hume (1711-1776)
- John Locke (1632-1704)
- Spinoza (1632-1677)
- Rene Descartes (1596-1650)
- Francis Bacon (1561-1626)
- Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274)
- Ibn Sina (980-1037)
- Aristotle (384–322 BC)
- Plato (428-348 BC)
- Socrates (469-399 BC)
- Confucius (551-479 BC)
Throughout history, people’s most applied field to search for the truth. What is philosophy, what is its purpose, what questions does it ask? and what is its relationship with other fields, and we talked about important philosophers and philosophers in history that you would like to research.