Technology and science are two different branches that contain different disciplines but show parallelism with each other. These two branches have started to develop since the first days of humanity and this development has continued as long as humanity exists. In this article, we will examine when and how technology and science emerged, and how they developed in different civilizations.
It is difficult to set an exact date for the emergence of technology and science. So much so that since the existence of modern man, these two concepts have emerged and started to develop. Of course, we can say that the needs of human life are the main reason for the development of these concepts. A transition to a new era has been made with the existence of a human being who can stand on two legs, which we can describe as modern humans. Unlike creatures standing on all fours, humans have free hands. The freed hands began to develop as a result of the need for nutrition and shelter. At this point, it is worth noting that the developmental process experienced by modern humans cannot be characterized as merely a physical development. Because, parallel to physical development, mental development has also been a part of this process. The mental and physical development process constitutes the beginning of the development process of science and technology.
When we look at historical periods today, we roughly call the period that lived before the invention of writing (the invention of writing is also an important technological development) as “Prehistoric Ages”. . We can take the farthest period in which modern humans existed and started to develop their civilization to 600,000 BC. This period is called the Paleolithic Age.
The human development that we mentioned in our answer to the previous question stands out precisely in this period. In this period, while people used caves and tree hollows as shelters, they continued their livelihood by hunting and gathering. In order for hunting to be possible, hunting aledollarserine was needed. The production of this most primitive hunting aledollar series can be determined as the first steps for the beginning of technology. The first hunting products that emerged by sharpening and sharpening the stones found in nature are the first technological products of human history.
With the birth of technology in this way, a new concept that will never stop and will develop continuously has also found its place at the very center of human life. In the ongoing processes, new technological aledollarser has also emerged. When we come to the Mesolithic Age, stones are no longer simply sharpened and sharpened. New products were introduced with chipped stones. Also, fire was discovered during this period, which is one of the greatest discoveries in human history.
We talked about the needs of human life in terms of the development of technology. So how did science evolve? If the emergence and development of technology and science is being examined, we need to move away from the meanings of the concepts of technology and science today. Because, today’s modern technology and science has reached the point we know, starting from the mentioned periods and developing rapidly in the last century.
Primitive technology and science was much smaller than it is today. We need to look at the development of science in this direction. So much so that the emergence of science was possible with the coexistence of people in nature. Human communities living freely in this way have come up with various ideas to explain some events that occur in nature. These ideas are the birth of science. For we can qualify all of these ideas as hypotheses. These hypotheses will then be confirmed or falsified through observations. Although this process is a scientific process even in its current sense, it is remarkable in that it is the first science activity series. For example, when people encounter lightning and lightning strikes in nature, they have come up with ideas to find the causes of these natural events.
In primitive societies, the common consensus about the causes of such natural events is the thought that these events were carried out by the gods. Thus, science and belief systems developed in parallel with each other. With the Neolithic Age, people engaged in agricultural activities, invented agricultural products in order to carry out agricultural activities, and thus continued the technological development, at the same time, they compared the way the soil gave them an edible product by taking the seed to their own birth process and described the soil as a female goddess. The sky, which warms themselves by offering its sun when necessary, and manifests its anger by striking lightning and lightning when necessary, is depicted as a male god. All natural events that took place after that were tried to be explained with this belief system. These explanations are also expressed as the birth of science.
Actually, this question is a comprehensive one that covers a time period that can extend from the times we mentioned to the present. People have reached new points by developing the technological activities and scientific processes that they started as primitives over time. At this point, the yellows of the time lived in, people’s getting used to life with each other and their contact with different people have also been effective. In the Chalcolithic Age, which we know as the Copper Age, city life began to show itself.
Where there is city life, it is possible to talk about agricultural activities. The yellow color of the geography we live in determines the cool nature of these agricultural activities. The ever-changing chardollarsar has paved the way for constantly changing technological developments. At the same time, war aledollar series has started to be made with the new mines that have been discovered, and this has led to the emergence of statedollarserine. So much so that, in the Chalcolithic Period, the surrounding of the cities began to be closed with walls. The emergence of the walls can be characterized as a technological development in the field of architecture. The existence of the need for walls can be explained by the idea of protection from wars. Thus, technological development will begin to show itself in the field of war technology. For example, the introduction of iron in war aledollar series is an important development in the field of war technology. Historical processes cannot be considered independently of these developments. So much so, with the development of technology, the series of city states became stronger and powerful kings and kingdoms emerged at that time.
With the strengthening of settled life and the intensification of the struggle for existence, people’s needs have also begun to take shape. The first element that draws attention in the geographies of the first civilizations is water. Agricultural societies have established their civilizations where there is water. However, although water is seen as a blessing for the civilizations established on the water’s edge, in some cases it will also be the main cause of great disasters. The series of flood disasters seen with the overflow of rivers damaged agricultural products, shelters and all living and non-living things. In order to prevent these catastrophes, the need to make observations arose. As a result of these observations, the faaliyedollarserer, which is attempted with the idea of achieving beneficial results, is of course scientific activitydollarser. Science has continued its development with the method of throwing new ideas in line with the needs of people.
As a result, technology and science, which emerged in the first periods when humanity existed and started to establish its civilization, continued its development in line with various needs throughout history. This development process has accelerated at some times and slowed down at other times for various reasons. In fact, although it sometimes came to a standstill, it never regressed, its direction was always forward. The process that started with the Mesopotamian societies, the first societies whose written sources we could reach, still continues in the societies we know today and in which we live. In addition, as long as humanity continues to exist, this development will continue to be at the center of humanity.